Thursday, May 12, 2011

District Administration in india

District Administration
District Administration refers to the governance at the level of the various districts in a state. It is the District Collector who acts as the representative of the state Government at the district level.

District Administration is the management of affairs within a district, which is the basic territorial unit of administration in India. It is at this level that the common man comes into direct contact with the administration. The district falls under the charge of a district officer, called either Deputy Commissioner or District Collector. This officer acts as the representative of the state government at this level. The district has also been the unit of administration for various other departments of the State Government. Thus, many State functionaries like the Superintendent of Police, Assistant Registrar of Cooperative Societies, District Agricultural Officer, District Medical Officer, etc., are located at the district headquarters and their jurisdiction extends to the district. Thus at the district level there are multiple officers for administering the affairs of the Government.
 At present the portfolio of the Collector’s office generally includes the following
functions and activities (though there may be variations across the States):-
Ø acting as theHead of Land and Revenue Administration, including responsibility
for District Finance (expenditure and audit);
Ø acting as the District Head of the Executive Magistracy and overall supervision
of law and order and security and some say in the police matters;
Ø as Licensing and Regulatory Authority in respect of the various special laws such
as Arms, Explosive and Cinematography Acts etc. in the District;
Ø conduct of elections – for Parliament, State Legislature and Local Bodies;
Ø as the Officer-in-charge of Disaster Management;
Ø as the guardian of public lands with the responsibility to prevent and remove encroachments which are often a source of tension between vested interests and the district administration;
Ø   The Collector is also the Chairman of  a large number of Committees at the district level.list of the committee chaired by collector are following-

1. Irrigation Development Board (IDB)
2. Vigilance & Monitoring Committee on SC/ST Atrocities
3. District Forestry Advisory Committee
4. AP Water, Land & Tree Act Implementation Committee (APWALTA Act)
5. District Rajak Welfare Committee
6. District Naibrambana Welfare Committee
7. District Joint Staff Council Committee – Employees Unions/Associations
8. AP Employees Welfare Fund District Committee
9. Registration of Existing & New Aquaculture Fish Ponds Committee
10. District Midday Meals Monitoring Committee (Primary Education)
11. District Selection Committee for Recruitment of Teachers
12. District BC Service Co-operative Society
13. District ST Sub-plan
14. District SC Service Co-operative Society Ltd.
15. District Task Force Committee of Mines & Geology
Revenue Division/Sub-division
The district is geographically divided into a number of units known as sub-divisions in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, revenue divisions in Tamil Nadu, and Prants in Maharashtra. The official-in-charge of this unit bears a variety of names; he is called Sub-Divisional Officer (SDO) or Sub-Divisional Magistrate (SDM) in Uttar Pradesh, Revenue Divisional Officer or Sub-Collector in Tamil Nadu, Prant Officer (Deputy Collector or Assistant Collector) in Maharashtra. This unit helps to further decentralize authority as well as to provide field training to recruits to the Indian Administrative Service. The SDO is either a newly recruited member of the IAS (and therefore quite young in age) or a member of the State Civil Service. Like the District Collector, the SDO is a generalist area administrator. He speaks with the voice of the Government in his own sub-division. He is a link between the District Collector and the Tahsildar in revenue matters and the District Magistrate and the Station Officer (police) in matters relating to law and order.
The sub-divisions may be classified into two broad types- an `office` type sub-division, and a `touring` type sub-division. In the former, the SDO maintains the office just as a Collector or a Tahsildar does. Here, the headquarters of the sub-division is usually located within the sub-division itself. Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra,Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Assam and Rajasthan represent this type. There is `also a touring type sub-division in which the SDO does not maintain an office. He is a touring officer gathering information, transmitting it to his district chief, contacting people, supervising subordinate officials, and finally, looking after the execution of governmental activities in his sub-division.

The SDO is thus a valuable field aide to the District Collector and is an integral part of the district administration. The SDOs in many States do not live within their sub-divisions. They reside at the district headquarters. As a matter of policy, the SDO and other sub-divisional level officers must reside at the sub-divisional headquarters.
The sub-division comprises one or two Tahsils. A Tahsil called Taluk in Tamil Nadu and Taluka in Maharashtra is the basic unit for purposes of general administration, treasury, land revenue, land records and other items of work. It has the closest and widest contact with the rural population. The officer in charge of the Tahsil is the Tahsildar, who belongs to the State Civil Service. He is the principal official in district administration responsible for actual revenue collection. His performance, also, is judged by his efficiency as a collector of revenues. He is the sub-treasury officer, thus accepting the payment of the revenue. He recommends remissions or other concessions to the District Collector in times of distress. He is assisted by a Naib or Deputy Tahsildar, Quanungos and Patwaris. The administration at the Tahsil level is the farthest unit of administration for revenue and land questions. It is not necessary that all departments are represented at this level, for the distribution of the staff below district level follows departmental needs.
The next lower unit in revenue administration is known as Pargana in Uttar Pradesh, circle in Maharashtra and Firka in Tamil Nadu. The head of this unit is called Supervisor Quanungo in Uttar Pradesh, Circle Inspector in Maharashtra and the Revenue Inspector in Tamil Nadu. He is in charge of revenue administration and land records of every village within his area. He is the first line supervisor in the chain of revenue administration in the States.

The lowest unit for all administrative and fiscal purposes in all the States of India is the village, which is administered by a village establishment. The Village Headman is the most powerful governmental functionary at the village level, combining as he does both police and revenue functions: he is the head of the village police, and he also collects revenue and deposits it in the treasury. He is the custodian of all Government property in the village.

Tuesday, May 10, 2011


Tata group

True Hero

The Tata trusts are the unsung heroes of an extraordinary saga of philanthropy that has enriched India and its citizens in myriad ways.
You may wonder why the Tatas — among the country's biggest and most illustrious industrial families for well over a century — never show up on any of those ritual listings of India's richest people. The reason is as simple as it is remarkable. Over generations, the Tatas have sustained a tradition of bequeathing much of their personal wealth to the many trusts they have created for the greater good of India and its people.
That is how the Tata trusts have come to control 65.8 per cent of the shares of Tata Sons, the holding company of the group. The wealth that accrues from this asset supports an assortment of causes, institutions and individuals in a wide variety of areas. The trusteeship principle governing the way the group functions casts the Tatas in a rather unique light: capitalistic by definition but socialistic by character.

India has an old tradition of philanthropy, passed on down the ages by kings, noblemen and rich merchants. Jamsetji Tata, the founder of the Tata group, gave new meaning to this term. In his words: "There is one kind of charity common enough among us… It is that patchwork philanthropy which clothes the ragged, feeds the poor, and heals the sick. I am far from decrying the noble spirit which seeks to help a poor or suffering fellow being. [However] what advances a nation or a community is not so much to prop up its weakest and most helpless members, but to lift up the best and the most gifted, so as to make them of the greatest service to the country."
Support for higher studies
This was the sentiment that led Jamsetji Tata to establish the JN Tata Endowment Scheme for higher education in 1892. The scheme helped bright Indian students of moderate means become administrators, scientists, doctors, lawyers and engineers, funding their education through loans and grants. The maiden grant was to DrFreneyCama, who became one of the first women gynaecologists in India and who would come to have a maternity hospital in Mumbai named after her.
Of the 37 beneficiaries in the first batch, as many as 15 joined the Indian Civil Service, the colonial version of the Indian Administrative Service, realisingJamsetji Tata's objective that Indians should learn how to govern themselves. By 1924, over a third of Indian ICS officers were Tata scholars. Illustrious JN Tata Endowment scholars include former president KR Narayanan, renowned scientists Raja Ramanna, JayantNarlikar and RaghunathMashelkar, and Gyanpeeth award-winning writer and actor GirishKarnad. The Endowment has thus far supported more than 3,500 scholars.
Philanthropy as a means of promoting higher education and research was a novel concept, even in the United States, at the end of the 19th century. Andrew Carnegie's path-breaking endowment of $1 million to set up a 'technical school' in Pittsburgh, now the Carnegie Mellon University, was made in 1900. But Jamsetji Tata preceded him. Two years earlier, in September 1898, he pledged half his personal wealth, an amount of Rs30 lakh (then £200,000), to make his dream of a "university or institute of research" a reality.
That the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bangalore would take another 13 years to be born, aided by a generous donation of 300 acres of land from the Maharajah of Mysore, is quite another matter. Jamsetji Tata died in 1904, unaware that his vision for science in India would indeed be fulfilled. Over the next 50 years it became a prime source of India's technological prowess. When various national laboratories were established in the late 1940s and 1950s, IISc alumni provided the intellectual manpower.

Their father’s sons
Jamsetji Tata's idea of philanthropy was to be given true expression by his sons, Sir Dorab Tata and Sir Ratan Tata, both of whom donated the major chunk of their personal wealth for the public good. Sir Dorab was the quintessential entrepreneur, working tirelessly to make his father's visionary ideas a reality — roaming the jungles of what is now Jharkhand in eastern India in a bullock cart to set up Tata Steel and pioneering the generation of hydroelectric power in the wilds of the Western Ghats — while Sir Ratan was a connoisseur of the arts and a passionate votary of social development.
Sir Ratan gave a grant to support Mahatma Gandhi's work in South Africa and another for Gopal Krishna Gokhale's nationalist activities in India. He also funded the first archaeological excavation at Pataliputra, which resulted in the discovery of the 100-pillar Mauryan throne room of Ashoka's palace. He donated resources that enabled the London School of Economics (LSE) to research the causes of poverty and how to alleviate it, leading to the establishment in 1912 of LSE's Sir Ratan Tata Department, subsequently called the Department of Social Sciences (the department's first lecturer was a bright young man named Clement Attlee, later to become the British prime minister who gave India its independence).
Sir Ratan died in 1918 at the relatively young age of 47. Apart from donating his unparalleled art collection, especially of Chinese jade, to the Prince of Wales Museum in Mumbai, he left directives in his will for his personal wealth to be used for basic and advanced (postgraduate) education, primary and preventive health, rural livelihood and communities, art and culture and public initiatives, for all Indians at a time when almost all trusts were communal in nature. The Sir Ratan Tata Trust was set up that same year.
A few months before his death in 1932, Sir Dorab bequeathed most of his personal wealth, then estimated at Rs1 crore and comprising substantial shareholdings in Tata Sons, Indian Hotels and allied companies, his landed property and his wife's jewellery — including the famous Jubilee diamond, twice the size of the Kohinoor — and even his pearl-studded tie pins and cuff links, to the newly registered Sir Dorabji Tata Trust.

Support for institution
The Sir Dorabji Tata Trust is best known for promoting six pioneering institutions of national importance. Four of these were established in Mumbai: the Tata Institute of Social Sciences, in 1936; the Tata Memorial Centre for Cancer Research and Treatment, in 1941; the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, in 1945; and the National Centre for the Performing Arts, in 1966. The National Institute of Advanced Studies (set up in 1988) and the Sir Dorabji Tata Centre for Research in Tropical Diseases (1999) are in Bangalore.
In 1931, at the age of 50, Sir Dorab's wife, Lady Meherbai, died of leukaemia. Sir Dorab started two trusts in his wife's memory. The Lady Meherbai D Tata Education Trust enables young women to go abroad and specialise in social work. So far it has supported over 225 women graduates. The Lady Tata Memorial Trust (LTMT) sponsors international research into leukaemia and the alleviation of human suffering. An international committee of experts in London carefully selects the researchers. In 1996-97, the Trust spent £200,000 for research into the subject by nine scientists from four countries. Some of the research that qualified for the Nobel and other international prizes was initially conducted by LTMT scholars at early stages in their careers.

The Sir Ratan Tata Trust and the S
irDorabji Tata Trust and their allied institutions are at the heart of the enduring Tata commitment to community development, but there are several other trusts too. The JRD Tata Trust, established in 1944, gives institutional donations to promote the advancement of learning, supports research grants and scholarships, provides disaster relief and backs social welfare projects. The MK Tata Trust, set up in 1958 by Minocher K Tata with his personal resources, delivers research grants and scholarships for the advancement of learning in all its branches as well as donating medical and other relief during natural calamities.
The Jamsetji Tata Trust, established in 1974 to mark the centenary of the first Tata enterprise, bestows grants for innovation. The RD Tata Trust, named after Jamsetji Tata's cousin and JRD Tata's father, and set up in 1990, gives institutional grants to advance learning and also backs social welfare projects. The Tata Social Welfare Trust and the Tata Education Trust were founded in 1990 and provides grants for institution maintenance and support of education institutes, hospitals and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in the sectors of livelihoods and management of natural resources. The JRD and Thelma J Tata Trust, set up in 1991 by JRD Tata with his and his wife Thelma's personal wealth, works to uplift women and children.

A funding agency
How do the trusts operate? Says ShernazVasunia, programme officer of the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust: "Over 75 per cent of our trust's funds come from dividends on the shares it owns in Tata Sons, the group's holding company. The remaining comes from their own statutory investments." Adds Sarosh N. Batliwala, who heads the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust: "Our trusts don't handle corporate social responsibility; they are more of a funding agency, like the Ford Foundation."
The Sir Dorabji Tata supports different kinds of NGOs — some do social work, some research, while others are community based — usually for a period of three to five years. It also works with international agencies such as the United Nations, mostly in times of natural disasters. From time to time the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust also initiates the process for establishing institutes of national importance.

The Ratan Tata Trust, too, depends on dividends from its Tata Sons shares and its investments. Programmes manager ArunPandhi says the Trust’s focus has changed over the years from charity to development funding, though the provisions of Sir Ratan's will are still the trust's principal guidelines.
Both trusts can and do come together sometimes to fund large projects with different components. The two have stringent appraisal, assessment, accounting and auditing requirements for the NGOs they fund. Projects must be aimed towards sustainability for the community, and money is always released in a phased manner that meets the requirements of recipients.
Surprisingly, the trusts do not usually encourage or consider supporting projects run by Tata companies. "The trustees' view is that if a company has started something then it should sustain itself through its own funds instead of asking the trusts for financial support," says MrBatliwala. "But we do consider cases based on merit," says MrPandhi. The Sir Ratan Tata Trust has funded initiatives by Tata Steel and Tata Chemicals. "There is sharing of knowledge," he says. "To die rich is to die disgraced," said Andrew Carnegie, the American business legend who transformed himself from robber baron to philanthropic epitome. For Carnegie, "the surplus wealth of the few will become, in the best sense, the property of the many." The narratives in this subsection are a window to the breadth and depth of the philanthropic endeavours of the Tata trusts, their quiet contribution to the cause of the country's poor and needy, and a ringing affirmation of the values of the group's founders

Charity spread
Ø There are two principal trusts operating under the Tata umbrella: the Sir Dorabji Tata and Allied Trusts and the Sir Ratan Tata Trust.
Ø The 'allied trusts' component of the Sir Dorabji Tata Trust comprises the Tata Social Welfare Trust, the RD Tata Trust, the Tata Education Trust, the JRD Tata Trust, the JRD Tata and Thelma Tata Trust, the Jamsetji Tata Trust, the JN Tata Endowment, the Lady Meherbai Tata Memorial Trust, and the Lady Meherbai Tata Education Trust.
Ø The Sir Dorabji Tata Trust's allocations to NGOs in 2006-07 were in these areas: management of natural resources; health; social development initiatives; education; and livelihoods. Allocations for individuals came under the heads of medical grants and travel or education grants.
Ø The Sir Ratan Tata Trust supports NGOs, individuals and institutions, and the areas it touches are rural livelihoods; health; education; arts and culture; and civil society and governance. Rural livelihoods account for the major part of the Sir Ratan Trust's funding support (50 per cent), with education (25 per cent) coming second.

The origin
The story of the Tata Group of business unfolds with the birth of its founder Jamshedji Tata in the small town of Navasari in Gujarat in 1839. He breathed his last in 1904 in Germany. His parents were Nuseerwanji and Jeevanbai Tata. Nusserwanji was the first businessman in a family of ParsiZorastrian priests. Destiny called him to Bombay where he started trading. Jamshedji joined him at the tender age of fourteen. He took admission in Elphinstone College and while still a student he married HirabaiDaboo. Jamshedji graduated in 1858 and joined his father’s trading firm. Those were turbulent times. The British had just managed to ruthlessly crush the 1857 Revolt. Since the age of twenty-nine Jamshedji continued to work in his father’s firm. In 1868 he started a trading company on his own with a capital of Rs.21, 000/- His first step was to acquire a bankrupt oil mill and convert it into a cotton mill which he renamed Alexander Mill. Two years later he sold it with a good margin of profit. With this he set up a cotton mill in Nagpur in 1874. Queen Victoria had just been declared the Empress and in keeping with the times Jamshedji named it Empress Mill.
Jamshedji was a unique personality. He did not just think of innovative ways of manufacturing textiles but he devised new labor practices that would satisfy the workers. In this way he was far ahead of his times. It was not just his own personal success but also of those who worked for him and his group. Jamshedji was in close contact with revolutionary thinkers and nationalists like DadabhaiNaoroji and Pherozeshah Mehta and strongly influenced by them. He came to the conclusion that economic self-sufficiency should go hand in hand with political independence. The former should be the base of the latter. Jamshedji had three key ideas in mind. He wanted to set up an iron and steel company, world class learning institution and a hydroelectric plant. Unfortunately during his lifetime none bore fruit but he had planted the seed, which later took roots and spread its branches under the care of his successors. The only achievement that he lived to see was The TajMahal Hotel. It was completed in December 1903 for a princely amount of Rs.4, 21, 00,000/-In this too he was inspired by nationalist thinking. In those days the locals, that is Indians, were not allowed into the best European Hotels. TajMahal Hotel was a befitting reply to this discrimination.Tata Group is a private conglomerate with headquarters at Mumbai. The present Chairman is Ratan Tata who took over from J.R.D. Tata in 1991. A member of the Tata family is always the Chairman of the group. Its operations covers many fields related to industry and allied activities concerned with know-how and its application –engineering, information technology, communications, materials, automotive, chemicals energy, telecommunications, software, hotels, steel and consumer goods.

Facts about Tata group
Ø The Tata Group has operations in more than 85 countries across six continents and its companies export products and services to 80 nations
Ø The Tata Group comprises 114 companies and subsidiaries in seven business sectors
Ø 65.8% of the ownership of Tata Group is held in charitable trusts.
Ø The 2009 annual survey by the Reputation Institute ranked Tata Group as the 11th most reputable company in the world. The survey included 600 global companies
Ø Total revenue is $70.8 billion in 2009
Ø Total asset is $51.79 billion in 2009
Ø Group profit $1.8 billion
Ø Shareholder base 3.5 million
Ø Total international revenue $45.8 billion (64.8% of total revenue)
Ø Companies listed in NYSE are tata motors and tata communication
Ø Total employees are 363,039

Ratan N Tata, Chairman, Tata Sons
Members of the Group Corporate Centre
 NA Soonawala, Vice Chairman, Tata Sons
 JJ Irani, Director, Tata Sons
 RK Krishna Kumar, Director, Tata Sons
 R Gopalakrishnan, Executive Director, Tata Sons
IshaatHussain, Finance and Executive Director, Tata Sons
KishorChaukar, Managing Director, Tata Industries
Arunkumar Gandhi

Ø Tata Tea: The world's largest integrated tea company
Ø TCS: Asia’s largest software exporter
Ø Titan: The world's fifth largest watch manufacturer
Ø Tata Steel: India’s largest private sector steel producer and the world's sixth
Ø Taj group: Largest 5-star chain of luxury hotels in India
Ø  Tata Chemicals: India’s largest, and world’s third largest manufacturer of soda ash
Ø  Tata Power: India’s largest private sector power utility

Ø Pioneered India’s steel industry
Ø  Introduced labour welfare benefits long before they were enacted by law (providentfund, gratuity, maternity benefits)
Ø  Started first power plant in India
Ø  Pioneered civil aviation in India
Ø  Brought insurance to India
Ø  Started India’s first chain of luxury hotels
Ø  Led commercial vehicle production
Ø Led India’s software development efforts
Ø  Manufactured India’s first indigenous passenger car, the Indica

List of TATA group of companies

Advinus Therapeutics
Brunner Mond
Casa Décor
Drive India Enterprise Solutions
Eight O' Clock Coffee
General Chemical Industrial Products
Good Earth Corporation
Hispano Carrocera
Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
Indian Hotels
Infiniti Retail
Jaguar Land Rover
Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
Magadi Soda Company
mjunction services
Mount Everest Mineral Wat

NatSteel Holdings
Nelito Systems
North Delhi Power
Powerlinks Transmission
Rallis India
Roots Corporation
Taj Air
TAL Manufacturing Solutions
Tata Advanced Materials
Tata Advanced Systems
Tata Africa Holdings
Tata AG
Tata AIG General Insurance
Tata AIG Life Insurance
Tata Asset Management
Tata AutoComp Systems
Tata BlueScope Steel
Tata BP Solar
Tata Business Support Services
Tata Capital
Tata Ceramics
Tata Chemicals
Tata Coffee
Tata Communications
Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consulting Engineers
Tata Cummins
Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company
Tata Elxsi
Tata Financial Services
Tata Housing Development Company
Tata Industrial Services
Tata Industries
Tata Interactive Systems
Tata International
Tata International AG
Tata Investment Corporation
Tata Limited
Tata Metaliks
Tata Motors
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
Tata NYK
Tata Petrodyne
Tata Pigments
Tata Power
Tata Power Trading
Tata Precision Industries
Tata Projects
Tata Quality Management Services
Tata Realty and Infrastructure
Tata Refractories
Tata Services
Tata Sky
Tata Sons
Tata Sponge Iron
Tata Steel
Tata Steel KZN
Tata Steel Processing and Distribution
Tata Strategic Management Group
Tata Tea
Tata Tea Inc
Tata Technologies
Tata Teleservices
Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra)
Tayo Rolls
Telco Construction Equipment
Tetley Group
The Tinplate Company of India
Titan Industries
TM International Logistics

Abbreviation Of Famous Companies

Abbreviation of FAMOUS companies

1.3M-Minnesota mining and manufacturing
2. AOL- America online inc
3. AT & T- American telephone and telegraph
4. BMW- Bayerische Motoren werke
5. DHL- Dalsey, Hillblom and lynn
6. FedEx- Federal express
7. FIAT- Fabbrica italiana automoili torino
8. GE- General electric corporation
9. GM- General motors
10. GTE- General Telephone and Electronics
11. IBM- International business machine corporation
12. Intel – integrated electronics
13. KFC- Kentucky fried chicken
14. LG- lucky goldstar corporation
15. MGM- Metro-Goldwyn mayer
16. NEC- Nippon electronics corporation
17.QANTAS- Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial service
18.MRF- Madras Rubber Factory
19. ESPN – Entertainment and Sports Programming Network
20. HCL – Hindustan Computers Ltd
21. HP-Hewlett-Packard
22. HSBC – Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation
23. HTC Corporation-High Tech Computer Corporation
24. Infosys-Information Systems
25.NCR- National Cash Register 

Wednesday, May 4, 2011

Types Of Hindu Marrriage

Mythology says that there are eight different types of Hindu marriages. Historical records support this perception, by saying that some of these types of marriages were prevalent in ancient India, among the people following Hinduism. Although not all the eight marriages had a religious sanction, it is said that they were observed among many communities of the people, following Hinduism, in the ancient time. People argue that many of them are still seen among the Hindus. In this article, we have discussed about the eight types of Hindu weddings in India.

Eight Types of Hindu Weddings 

Brahma marriage 
According to the Brahma marriage, a boy is eligible to get married, once he has completed his Brahmacharya (student hood). Parents, who search for a bride for their son, would consider the family background of the girl, whom he is going to marry. On the other hand, the bride's father would ensure that the boy has acquired knowledge of the Vedas. This is how a Brahma marriage was arranged. There was no system of dowry. Among the eight types of marriage, brahma marriage holds a supreme position.

Daiva Marriage
In this type of marriage, the girl's family waits for a particular time, to get her married. If they do not find a suitable groom for their daughter, then they would marry her off to places, where sacrifices are conducted. In this case, the girl is generally married to a priest, who conducts sacrifices. According to the sastras, Daiva marriage is considered inferior to Brahma marriage, because it is considered degrading for the womanhood.

Arsha Marriage 
Arsha marriage is the one, wherein the girl is married to the sages or rishis. References from dharmasastras tell us that in arsha marriage, the bride is given in exchange of two cows, received from the groom. The girl is generally married to an old sage. The cows, which were taken in exchange of the bride, shows that even the groom do not have any remarkable qualities. According to sastras, noble marriages had no monetary or business transactions. Therefore, these kind of marriages were not considered noble.

Prajapatya Marriage 
Monetary transactions and Kanyadaan are not parts of Prajapatya marriage, unlike the Brahma marriage, where these two forms an important and basic part. Unlike the Brahma marriage, here, the bride's father goes in search for a groom for his daughter. The Brahma type is considered better than prajapatya, because in the former, the groom's family goes out to seek a suitable bride for their son.

Gandharva Marriage
Gandharva marriage is similar to love marriage. In this case, the bride and the groom get married secretly, without the knowledge of their parents. It is not considered a right kind of marriage, as it is done without the consent of the parents. This marriage reminds us of the love affair of the mythological characters - Sakuntala and Dushyanta.

Asura Marriage 
In the Asura marriage, the groom is not at all suitable for the bride. Although the groom is not suitable for the bride, he willingly gives as much wealth as he can afford, to the bride's parents and relatives. Therefore, the system of marriage is more or less like buying a product, which makes it undesirable in the present time.

Rakshasa Marriage 
According to Rakshasa marriage, the groom fights battles with the bride's family, overcomes them, carries her away and then persuades her to marry him. This is not considered as the righteous way to woo a girl for marriage, because forcible methods are used by the groom to tie the wedding knot.

Paishacha Marriage
Paishacha marriage is the eighth and last type of Hindu wedding. It is considered as the inferior type of marriage, because the girl's wish is not considered, even if she is not willing to marry the person chosen for her. In fact, she is forced to marry. Moreover, the bride's family is also not given anything in cash or kind. Literally, the girl is seized against her wish. Men would marry a woman, whom he had seduced while she was asleep, intoxicated or insane. This kind of marriage was later on prohibited

Monday, May 2, 2011

Total quality Management (TQM)

14+ Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM: "Doing the Right Thing, Right the First Time, All the Time; Always striving for Improvement & always satisfying the Customer." [DOD 1989]

1. ADD VALUE TO THE PROCESS: Every action by every employee should add value to the process or product in every way all the time. Enhance your work by your actions.

2. DELIVER QUALITY ON TIME ALL THE TIME. Develop a pattern of delivering perfect products & services on time. Rate your sources by their ability to do this.

3. BASE BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS ON MUTUAL TRUST and confidence: Providers and Suppliers build trust and confidence through quality and deliverability. Customers build it by quick payment and clear lines of communication. Reliability, Forthrightness, and Honesty are the Basis of forming Business Relations.

4. TRAIN INDIVIDUALS AND TEAMS TO SOLVE PROBLEMS:Teach Problem -Solving Tools / Techniques & Teaming as the means to solve quality, safety, productivity, and deliverability problems.

5. EMPOWER EMPLOYEES TO BE RESPONSIBLE for Quality, Safety, Productivity and Deliverability. Empowering means giving workers responsibility for their actions affecting their work. Share governance.

6. DEED 'OWNERSHIP' OF PROCESS TO EMPLOYEES who have proven their capability. Reward and reinforce empowerment with Incentives, Job Security and Equity Sharing. Make employees owners of the process, not attendants.

7. IMPLEMENT THE NEW TECHNOLOGY: Use modern information resources, INTERNET, databases, telecommunications, applications software, and project scheduling as tools to improve productivity. Use Statistical Process Control (SPC) to eliminate errors and defects and continually improve the system.

8. COLLECT, MEASURE AND EVALUATE DATA before Making Decisions. "It never hurts to turn the light on." (J. DeSimone). Make Decisions based on evidence. "If you can't measure it, you can't evaluate it."

9. APPLY THE '80/20' PRINCIPLE: Use this Problem-Solving Tool to put problems into 'Trivial Many' and 'Vital Few' Categories. Record the causes and frequencies of problems on a Tally Sheet. Develop this into a Pareto Chart which plots the frequencies (most- to least-important) of the problems. 20% of the causes create at least 80% of the problems. Importance of resolving vital problems first.

10. DEVELOP 'WIN-WIN' SCENARIOS: Create solutions that will benefit all parties. Cooperation that develops synergism is the best solution.

11. DEVELOP A MASTER PLAN: Good Design Precedes Good Craftsmanship. A well-designed plan tracks and benchmarks an action through to its completion. "Quality begins at the Design Level." (Marty Madigan)

12. PLAN FOR ALL CONTINGENCIES: Prepare for all solutions by developing alternatives. If necessary, flowchart plans dealing with all possible alternatives. Apply 'If-Then-Else' type of logic to problems.

13. MAKE ZERO DEFECTS AND ACCIDENTS YOUR GOAL: Use the tools of TQM, SPC, and Problem-Solving to achieve these goals by detecting and eliminating the causes.

14. QUALIFY YOUR SOURCES AND SUPPLIERS: Use Quality and Deliverability as the basis for selecting the source of your materials and services.

15. DELIVERABILITY: The Right Product at the Right Place at the Right Time. In world-class Just-in-Time (JIT) delivery systems, source parts are used without delay and inspection in the process.

16. MEET THE NEEDS OF YOUR CUSTOMERS: Customers are anyone affected by your work: co-workers, team members, management, & especially the end-users. They are the rationale for your work. The justification for your work is to deliver products or services that meet or exceed their requirements.

17. IMPROVE CONTINUOUSLY AND ALWAYS: Institute continuous improvement & life-long education, principles based on the 14 Points by W. Edwards Deming. Optimize your curve. They constitute an ever expanding continuum. Add to this list.